All Water is Divided Into Four Parts

Water is basic to life. Environmentalists worry about four kinds of water:

• agricultural runoff: poisons (pesticides, herbicides) and nutrients.
• stormwater runoff: oil, grease, salt, silt, chemicals, fertilizer, poisons, untreated sewage.
• industrial wastewater: chemicals.
• domestic wastewater: nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate, potassium), drugs, medicines, germs (bacteria).

The whole point is to protect the quality of water in the two broad categories of nutrients and toxins. Nutrients promote the growth of bacteria that will make people sick and cause growth that damages sea life. Toxins include a broad range of substances from poisons to traces of metals, plastics and paints. Many of these damage cell tissue and some promote cancer.

None of us can do much to protect the wells, rivers, lakes, aquifers and oceans of our planet. But each of us can do a little. No one person is causing the Chesapeake Bay pollution or the thousands of acres of floating garbage in the Pacific or the toxic shoreline problems on our beaches.

Moral of the story: don’t over-fertilize or dump substances such as paint, grease and oil into the ground. Don’t flush medicines down the toilet, use detergents to wash vehicles on driveways and streets instead of using car washes. Don’t be wading around in floodwaters. Do dispose of waste properly and avoid littering. Manage rather than ignore runoff. Pay attention to local guidelines. When the authorities warn us to boil water before drinking or the sign says stay out of the water, we need to do so. The well being of our families, patrons, and friends is at stake. We need to act accordingly.

The Ideal Habit for Young Adults to Develop

In the event that all the knowledge through almost all the wise men and women worldwide were to be compacted straight into one piece of advice and passed to each and every adolescent at the outset of his / her grown-up existence it becomes this: Work to become a saver. Only look at this site. Not many behaviour in life is going to bless you to the level at which this one can. Fight the need to amass personal debt at the moment when you see your closest friends buying autos, spending extravagantly, and taking on the type of debt that are going to require these people to work extended hours for several years to pay for them. Most really some day die still indebted – is this truly what you would like? It isn’t. Learn to exercise frugality very early and it shall surely pay off in the future.

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It will take many years to build a a good credit rating, and having fine credit just might be the principal element in the particular method to finding the best in daily life. The finance bureaus have a tendency to examine stuff like persistence within a man or woman’s payment record, someone’s credit card debt to credit ratio, and also regardless of whether you have possessed a property foreclosure or even reported a bankruptcy proceeding. By being prepared to hold off pleasure in several things and also to exercise discretion along with intelligence upon others, you are able to eventually preserve thousands upon thousands of money. Examples include being willing to drive a pre-owned car, working in a second job, and also establishing the goal of financial independence from a young age. Visit this webpage here regarding more info

Partehnium: A Curse to Agriculture

Weeds are a menace for our agricultural crops. They absorb all the mineral nutrients required by our valuable crops and spread in a wide range making the agricultural land unfit for cultivation. Parthenium hysterophorus or Congress weed is one such menace. It is one of the worst weeds in the world. It is harmful to plants, animals and human beings. It can be called as a curse for our biodiversity. The other names for his weed are Chatak Chandni, Ramphool and White top. It is not a native to India but has been transported through grains in the late fifties. The flowers are known to cause allergic reaction in human beings as the plant is known to emit millions of pollens which cause asthma, skin reactions and mental depression. The minute hairs present on the stem of the weed are also known to cause skin irritation in humans.

It is also it is also surprising to note that many farmers suffering from Parthenium borne skin infections have committed suicide. The roots of the congress weed are also known to secrete lethal chemicals which are responsible for affecting the growth of the neighbouring plants. These chemicals are responsible for the rapid spread of this weed. These chemicals are also responsible for the death of our valuable medicinal plants. In the past the weed was known to be restricted to our wastelands but now it is widespread among the fields competing with our valuable food crops for light, moisture and minerals and declining their production. Every day many farmers and cattle come in contact with this harmful weed and are affected because of it. It is also harmful for our wildlife and it is really very difficult to estimate the total percentage of the wildlife which is affected by this obnoxious weed every day. Animals generally do not feed on this weed but if taken by them accidentally then it is fatal to them. In Australia many tons of meat gets infected with this weed leading to a loss of many millions of rupees.

The plant produces four generations in a year and each plant produces about 25,000 seeds. Parthenium is a native to America. The weeds lacks any natural enemy so it spreading tremendously. The management of this weed is not an easy job and the weed makes its demarcated appearance at the flowering stage. If we disturb the flowering plant then the possibility of the dispersal of the seeds increases so it is not beneficial to destroy the flowering plant. Although many chemicals are available that can control the spread of this irritating weed but they are not environmental friendly so one should avoid the use of such chemicals. American and Australian governments are working in this direction to make people aware of this obnoxious weed and the Indian government is also trying to think in this direction. The Parthenium beetle of the Mexican beetle Zygogramma bicolorata has been introduced in India for the control of this weed but more research is required so that it can be used as a potent biocontrol agent against this lethal weed.

We must encourage the eco-friendly tactics for the control of harmful weeds.

Investing – How To Choose The Best Option

Investors are increasingly forced to choose from a proliferation of investment options. They also have to deal with contradictory advice on how to achieve their financial goals and how to invest the savings they have accumulated during their lifetime. If you consider that there are more than 7000 mutual funds available in the United States alone, and thousands of insurance products worldwide, making the choice that will satisfy them ever after is daunting, to say the least.

No wonder people so often ask the rather general question: Which investment is best? The first part of the answer is easy: No single investment is ‘the best’ under all circumstances for all investors. Personal circumstances, goals and different people’s needs differ, as do the characteristics of different investments. Secondly, one asset class’s strength in certain circumstances could be another’s weakness. It is therefore important to compare investments according to relevant criteria. The art is to find the appropriate investment for each objective and need.

The following are the most important criteria:

  • the goal of the investment
  • the risk the investor can handle
  • liquidity required
  • taxability of the investment
  • the period until the financial goal is reached
  • last but not least, the cost of the investment.

THE GOAL

Goals determine the characteristics sought in an investment. You will be in a position to choose the most appropriate investment only when you have decided on your short-, medium- and long-term goals. The following generic goals are normally involved:

Emergency fund

Emergency fund money should be readily available when needed, and the value of the fund should be equal to about six months’ income. Money market funds are excellent for this purpose. While these funds do not perform much higher than inflation, their benefit is that capital is saved and is easily accessible.

If you already have a ready emergency fund covering more than six months’ income, you could consider a more aggressive mutual fund

Capital protection

If your primary aim is capital protection, you will have to be satisfied with a lower growth rate on the investment. Those above 50 are normally advised to be conservative in their investment approach. While this may for the most part be sound advice, you should also keep an eye on the risk of inflation, so that the purchasing power of your money does not depreciate. It is not the nominal value of the capital that should be protected, but the inflation-adjusted one. At an annual inflation rate of 6%, $1 million today will buy the same as $174 110 in 30 years’ time. A 50 year-old with $1 million would therefore have to lower his living standard substantially if he only retains the $1 million until he was 80.

Conservative investments like those listed above should form the normal basis for providing an income. Because of inflation risk, investments should be structured so that they can at least keep up with inflation. This means that at least a percentage of the investment source providing the income should be made up of other asset classes like property and equity mutual funds. The percentage would differ according to individual and economic circumstances.

Investors fortunate enough to have their basic budget provided for by a conservative fund could consider increasing their income with commercial property funds and tax-free income from dividends paid out by listed shares.

Capital growth

If an investor’s primary goal is to achieve capital growth, the real rate of return should be higher than inflation. This implies greater risk to capital in the short term. Investors aiming at capital growth should not be apprehensive, as they will reap the rewards in the long term.

The history of equity prices over the past 100 years proves equity investments to be the best performer, followed by property. This does not mean you should buy either of these investments blindfolded. Wait until the quality shares in which you are interested are trading at inexpensive price levels.

RISK

The investment with a history of the highest growth is not necessarily the one to choose. The Standard Bank’s Gold Fund increased by 178% during the period 13 August 2001 – 24 May 2002 (284 days). Judging only on the growth of the fund during this period, it performed exceptionally well. But would it be the right investment for a retiree? During the 805 days following this, the same fund experienced a negative growth rate of 44%! The problem with an investment that decreases by this percentage is that it will not reach its previous peak by increasing again by 44%. This is because the growth this time will take place from a lower base, so in fact the investment would have to increase by approximately 80%.

LIQUIDITY

Hard assets like Persian carpets, works of art and antique furniture may be good investments in the long term, but unfortunately they are not very liquid. The same is true of certain shares in smaller companies. Money market funds, on the other hand, are very liquid, but the returns may not always be as good as those from other investments. The need to liquidise the investment quickly is therefore also a criterion to consider when evaluating investments.

TAXABILITY

The taxability of an investment has a considerable impact on its value to the investor. When comparing the returns on different investments, the return after tax has been deducted should be used. The investor should always ask what will be left in his pocket after tax deduction.

PERIOD

Conservative investments with no potential for high returns are suitable for shorter periods, while investment-objectives with longer time horizons aspire to achieving higher returns. Money market funds are suitable for periods of one or two years. Income and conservative asset allocation funds for three or four years and flexible asset allocation funds, commercial property funds and value equity funds may be chosen for longer periods, dependent on the economic and interest cycle and the propensity of the investor to accept risk.

COSTS

The costs involved in an investment are normally things like administrative cost and commission. The percentage of the costs to the investment amount directly affects the value of the investment. Many of the currently available investment products are structured in such a way that investors can negotiate commission.

CONCLUSION

No investment strategy blueprint is going to be perfect for everyone’s circumstances. Investment opportunities should therefore be examined critically before any decision is made. It should also be kept in mind that there are different companies managing specific funds under the investment categories referred to above. Some are more effectively managed than others. Investors should therefore research investments as well as the managers thoroughly before investing. Otherwise, they could appoint professional asset managers to do so on their behalf. Time spent determining the type of investment you really need is time invested in your future financial well-being.

Agriculture Education in Philippines

The Philippines is an agrarian economy with agriculture being the main occupation of its people. Most of its citizens live in the rural areas and follow various livelihood options in the agricultural sector. The total land area in the country is 30 million hectares, out of which 47% is under agriculture. Prime agricultural lands are located around the main urban and high population density areas.

The agricultural sector in Philippines is divided into four sub-sectors comprising of farming, fisheries, livestock and forestry. Rice and corn account for nearly 50% of the agricultural produce in the country. This has led to the increased awareness about agricultural studies.

Besides rice and corn, the other important crop yields in the country are coconut, bananas, pineapple, coffee, mangoes and abaca (a banana type plant). Apart from these, the secondary agriculture produce include peanut, cassava, garlic, onion, egg-plant, cabbage, rubber, cotton and calamansi (type of lemon).

The agricultural land in the country is a mixture of small, medium and large farms. An average farm size is about 2 hectares which are usually owned and managed by single family units and range from the subsistence to the commercial production. The typical farming system constitutes of crop yields like rice, corn and coconut as common base and also includes a few heads of livestock and poultry.

Due to all these prevailing conditions, a need was felt to impart knowledge about the various agricultural practices and the latest trends being followed around the globe. This gave birth to the Agriculture Colleges in Philippines, some of which are owned by the state.

The following colleges in the country are considered to be the best in terms of infrastructure, the faculty and the quality of education.

Pampanga Agriculture College: Primarily established as an agricultural school, Pampanga Agriculture College became a state college in September 1974. Originally started in 1885, this century old institution is located on the foothills of the Majestic Mt. Arayat in the town of Magalang, province of Pampanga. It is spread out on an area of 700 hectares of government agricultural lands. The main focus of the college is on Instruction, Research & Development, Extension Training and Production.

Presently the college offers 13 under-graduate courses, 2-year computer course, 2-year course in agricultural technology, agricultural science high school, and graduate schools for three masters and three doctoral degrees.

Xavier University – College of Agriculture: This prestigious institution was founded in 1953 by the late Fr. William F. Masterson and is the second oldest amongst the colleges of agriculture in Mindanao and also has the proud position of being the only Catholic College of Agriculture in the entire country. It is also the founding member of the Association of Colleges of Agriculture of the Philippines (ACAP).

The curriculum of Xavier University – College of Agriculture is a distinctive combination of active field work and the liberal arts formation. The main thrust of the college is on Instruction, Research, Extension and Production.

Apart from the above two educational institutions, there are also many other state sponsored Universities which provide education on the different facets of agriculture. Most of the colleges are affiliated with some overseas faculty and organizations which provide valuable inputs on a regular basis.

Legal Protection for Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) in Nigeria

For healthy and continuous in flow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) to Nigeria, the country has over the years put in place friendly legal framework for Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) protection.

In this Foreign Investors’ Guidelines for Doing Business in Nigeria Series, we shall be examining the legal mechanisms put in place for the purpose of encouraging an increasing FDIs inflow and ensuring foreign investors’ confidence in the country.

We shall be discussing foreign investors’ protections ranging from certainty of arbitral proceedings and other dispute resolution mechanisms in the country.

The fact with modern economic systems is that no country can be an island economically; Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) protection is very essential to the successful attainment of foreign investors’ business objective(s) and economic development of any economy.

There are steps that host countries can lawfully take in the exercise of their sovereignty and power can lead to depriving foreign investors of reaping the fruits of their investments.

Host government actions that can affect foreign investment adversely includes nationalization; the act of a government taking control of a private enterprise and converting it to state or public ownership.

Expropriation; the act of a government taking possession of or otherwise meddling with privately held assets or property for the use and benefit of the public, or in the public interest.

The legislative and administrative acts of the government as government action can also have adverse effects on foreign investors’ businesses in Nigeria.

This is the indirect or creeping form of expropriation. The only difference is that, it mode of operation shifted attention from the physical and actual taking-over of an investor’s assets to the legislative and administrative acts of the government.

While not depriving a foreign investor of the ownership of an asset in this type of government control, it is capable of significantly reducing the value of properties and investments of the foreign owner.

Foreign investors don’t like investing in country’s with risk such as arbitrary revocation of a license; permit or a concession after the investor has made the requisite investments.

The advancement and expansion of international business relationships and the importance of foreign direct investment to the economic development of Nigeria has made the country to put in place some foreign business protection laws for the purpose of encouraging foreign investors.

Nigeria has performed greatly in providing protections to potential foreign investors.

Investment Treaties

In spite of the provisions of Section 12 of the Nigerian Constitution, investment treaties entered by the country are binding on, and enforceable against Nigeria upon ratification under the principle of ‘pacta sunt servanda’.

Also, by a literal application of Article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties which provides that a treaty shall be interpreted in good faith in agreement with the ordinary meaning to be given to the terms of the treaty.

Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs): Nigeria entered into its first Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) with Germany in 1979 which came into force in 1986.

According to finding from my investigation Nigeria has entered into 28 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between 1986 and November, 2015.

Of the total number, 13 are currently in force, 14 are signed and 1 repealed. The Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) currently in force are the ones entered into with Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Spain, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom.

The 14 BITs which have been signed by Nigeria but are yet to enter into operation were signed as far as back as 1996.

In addition to the usual investment protection standards, these BITs provide that a contracting state shall not damage by irrational or unfair means the maintenance, management, disposal of investment in its territory of nationals or companies of the other Contracting Party.

And the same recompense for losses suffered due to a safety event made to a domestic investor shall be allowed to the investor from the other contracting state.

These BITs also provide for the right of subrogation allowing foreign investors to obtain suitable investment insurance and for these investment insurance providers to seek remedy on their behalf from Nigeria.

The BITs that are presently in force have also made satisfactory requirements for the standard investment protection. These include fair and equitable treatment, umbrella clauses, most favoured nation status, national treatment, obligations against arbitrary and discriminatory measures and security.

Multi-lateral Investment Treaties (MITs): Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) treaty is one of the famous MITs Nigeria have entered. The ECOWAS treaty was signed on 28th May 1975; it came in into force on the 20th June, 1975.

The treaty currently has 15 signatories who are member states of ECOWAS.

Article 2 of the Treaty gives ‘Community Enterprise’ status to businesses whose equity capital is owned by two or more member states, and citizens or institutions of the Community.

Article 16 of the Treaty provides that Community Enterprise shall be accorded favourable treatment with regards to incentives and advantages, and shall not be nationalised or expropriated by the government of any member state except for valid reasons of public interest, and subject to the payment of prompt and adequate compensation.

Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) investment treaty is another MIT Nigeria has entered into in relation with providing favourable conditions for foreign investments in the country.

OIC is a treaty with an Agreement on Promotion, Protection and Guarantee of Investments among Member States of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which came into force in September, 1986.

Chapter 2 of the Treaty mandates all member states of the Organization of Islamic Countries to provide adequate security and protection to the invested capital of an investor who is a national of another contracting member state.

The terms of protection specifically include the enjoyment of equal treatment, undertaking not to adopt measures that may directly or indirectly affect the ownership of the investor’s capital or investment and not to expropriate any investment except it is in the public interest and on prompt payment of adequate compensation.

Host states are further obligated to guarantee free repatriation of any capital and returns due to an investor.

Conventions to which Nigeria is a Signatory:

The country is signatory to a number of Conventions which have been entered into for the purposes of protecting foreign direct investment.

The most significant convention in this regard is the Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention).

International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) as an arbitral institution under the World Bank Group is a fully integrated, self-contained arbitration institution that provides standard arbitration clauses, arbitration proceedings rules, arrangements for venues, financial arrangements and administrative supporting including the appointment of arbitrators to parties.

Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID) primarily provides for the settlement of investment disputes between investors and sovereign host states.

It has also taken the necessary legislative measures to make the Convention’s resolution effective in Nigeria by enacting it as a domestic legislature in the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (Enforcement of Awards) Decree No. 49 of 1967.

Another significant investment protection convention Nigeria has entered into is the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.

New York Convention was adopted by the United Nations in June, 1958 and it mandates domestic courts in signatory countries to give effect to arbitration agreements, and to also recognise and enforce valid arbitral awards given in other signatory states.

The New York Convention in other words is particularly significant for the enforcement of arbitral awards resulting from non-ICSID investment arbitration proceedings.

In an attempt to bring into conscious awareness the legal guidelines to undertaking business in Nigeria to intended foreign investors, we shall specifically be reviewing domestic legislations and investment treaties which collectively make up the legal framework for foreign investment protection in the country.

The Domestic Legal Framework:

The notable investment legislation in Nigeria is the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act, CAP N117 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (“NIPC Act”).

The NIPC Act provides the fundamental and suitable legal framework for the protection of foreign investors in the country. Part 5 of the NIPC Act provides that foreigners may invest and participate in any enterprise in Nigeria.

They are assured unrestricted transfer of funds attributable to the investment such as profits, dividends, payments in respect of loan servicing, and the remittance of proceeds obtained from the sale or liquidation of assets or any interest in the venture through an approved dealer in freely convertible currency.

Section 25 of the NIPC Act clearly provides that no enterprise shall be expropriated or nationalised without prompt payment of compensation; the same section also provides a protection clause to an investor to claim “creeping” expropriation by establishing that the acts complained of indirectly results to expropriation or have expropriatory tendency.

Lastly, the NIPC Act provides that disputes between a foreign investor and any government in Nigeria arising from an investment shall be submitted to arbitration within the framework of any investment treaty entered into between the government of Nigeria and any state of which the foreign investor is a national.

It further provides that where there is a disagreement between the Nigerian government and the foreign investor on the mode of dispute settlement, the dispute shall be submitted to ICSID for arbitration.

Foreign investor is thus at liberty in Nigeria to institute arbitration proceedings against a government even after bringing a claim or counterclaim against the government in a court or domestic arbitration.

Another domestic legislation that provides protection to foreign investors is the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provisions Act) CAP F34.

Section 15 of this Act provides that any person may invest in any business venture with foreign currency or capital imported into Nigeria through an authorized dealer who will issue a Certificate of Capital Importation to the foreign investor.

Sub-section (4) of the same section in addition guarantees unconditional transferability of funds in freely convertible currency of any such monies arising from an investment made in Nigeria with foreign currency, including dividends and profits, payments in respect of loan servicing, and remittances of the proceeds of sale or liquidation of assets.

A similar provision on repatriation is also found in Section 18 of the Nigeria Export Processing Zones Act, CAPN107 (“NEPZA Act”).

Section 18 of the NEPZA Act provides that foreign investors who invest in outlined businesses within an export zone shall be eligible to remit profits and dividends earned in the zone and repatriate foreign capital investment at any time with capital appreciation of the investments.

Other foreign investors’ protection laws are the Arbitration and Conciliation Act. The act gives foreign investors the opportunity to determine the mode of settling disputes that may arise out of their investments without resort to litigation in domestic (Nigeria) courts.

With the anticipation that such settlement will unfailingly and efficiently protect and enforce the rights of foreign investors and their investments provides a framework for domestic arbitration it also makes provisions for international commercial arbitration which is more preferable by foreign investors.

Section 56(2) (d) defines ‘international arbitration’ to include any arbitration that the parties have expressly agreed in the arbitration agreement to treat as international arbitration. The Act provides that every arbitration award is capable of enforcement under the New York Convention.

Nigeria’s entries into these investment treaties and its enactment of the Conventions into domestic legislation have made the protection mechanism part of Nigeria’s legal framework for protection of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) friendly and convenient to actual and potential foreign investors.

Manatee River Watershed And Four Corners Phosphate Mine

Manatee County, Florida covers about 740 square miles of land area and 151 square miles of freshwater resources. A 130-foot ridge in the northeast corner of Manatee County produces the headwaters and the (1) Manatee River basin flow characteristics including water quality and quantity. In other words, Manatee County is itself a watershed by definition where all rain water culminates throughout the county and flows into a common basin called the Manatee River watershed.

The Manatee River watershed encompasses most of Manatee County in west central Florida. The watershed contains a substantial amount of natural freshwater resources in area tributaries, streams, lowlands, lakes, rivers, and the like. All of the freshwater resources in the basin flow into the Manatee River estuary which in turn flows into the Gulf of Mexico, just south of Tampa Bay.

Economically, this region of Florida brings in billions of dollars annually via tourism including water related venues, agriculture, and the cattle industry. The head of the Gulf Restoration Network said phosphate strip mining in Florida “is a direct threat” to Florida’s $8.1 billion recreational fishing industry not counting revenues from the industries mentioned above. Historically, Florida taxpayers make up the difference in lost revenue based on phosphate industry economic damages due to “industry accidents”.

Historically, Manatee County has phosphate issues at the Port Manatee where taxpayers paid over one hundred and forty million dollars to neutralize (3) severe environmental industry “accidents”. The phosphate industry, in this case, was not held accountable just by filing for bankruptcy. Filing for bankruptcy by phosphate companies is the “norm” after severe toxic releases and accidents which seem to release phosphate industry official’s responsibilities and liabilities as well.

Unfortunately, Florida’s phosphate industry owns much of the land in the Four Corners area in Manatee County with thousands of acres of environmentally critical strip mined land complete with a processing plant. Florida’s elected officials “permit” industry plans to include completely removing environmentally critical navigable waterways and riparian areas in the Manatee River basin for the phosphate ore thirty to fifty feet below the surface. Phosphate industry practices may be illegal by removing riparian areas and navigable waterways based on state and federal laws and may soon be under investigation.

The phosphate industry owns the mineral rights to the phosphate but cannot disturb riparian lands, navigable waterways, and downstream user’s rights during mining processes. Historically, Florida’s elected officials “permit” the phosphate industry to severely disturb navigable waterways and riparian lands. Florida’s elected officials should be held accountable by their constituents. Interestingly, “public rights” to riparian lands and navigable waterways may be “overlooked” by elected officials leaving Florida taxpayers with little representation if any concerning phosphate industry practices.

Interestingly, an economist from the University of Miami researched economic gain from the phosphate industry and related jobs in the area of Hardee County. Hardee County is adjacent to Manatee County. The study confirmed an “economic loss” of almost eight million dollars due to the phosphate industries destruction of the landscape by removing the fabric of the Florida earth including navigable waterways and riparian lands. All other economically driven industries in Florida are completely crushed under the weight of phosphate strip mining. The only winners are phosphate industry officials themselves.

Once the landscape is strip mined, industries such as agriculture, cattle, and tourism will never return based on (2) geologist research from the University of Florida. The research results estimate about five hundred years for the less complex ecosystems to recover from severe land disturbances such as phosphate strip mining. Once the phosphate industry recovers all the phosphate in a region they move on and leave the toxic left-overs for the county taxpayers where the abandoned phosphate mines are located.

Historically, what once seemed to be a good deal for local jobs during the beginning years of a phosphate mining operation will finally play out, during a later generation, to become a local economic disaster? Economic and environmental models for various stages in the life of a phosphate mine are known and studied in depth.

Statistically, the end result of phosphate mining both economically and environmentally, display high probabilities of being a poor long term investment and leave local economies in ruins.

Reference
1. Basin Management Action Plans. – dep.state.fl.us/water/watersheds/bmap.htm.
2. University of Florida – nrli.ifas.ufl.edu/reports/hainescity.HTML.
3. wetmaap.org/Manatee_River/Supplement/mr_background.HTML.

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